Algol 60 Standards:

Revised Report (really it is the initial standard)

algol 60 revised report

Modified Report ( with addition of new functions )

algol 60 modified report Algol with these additions is much better.

Johann Joss ideas:


Extended Report Proposal for Algol 60 Extended (in development...):

In 2015 we have 55 years of Algol 60. This Language is very good, especially in two areas:

Why level of Algol60 using is low right now? It is a result of IBM efforts in 1960s-1970s and "activity" of Algol68 committee. IBM specially don't develop Algol 60 compilers because they were afraid it will be competitor-"killer" of FORTRAN language. About Algol68 committie ... Is's very sad story of killing of Algol60 as a competitor of looser monster language Algol68.

After its birth Algol 60 practically was not developed. Only Modified Report was proposed (1972), where they defined simple I/O procedures and some additioonal procedures (fault and stop).

Of course, Algol 60 needs extensions. However, they must be in the initial scope of Algol ideas. Do not do a new language, but extend the language without adding new concepts (for example no references, no structures). Extensions have to save the Algol main concept: it is a language for algorithm development with a minimal Input/Output library.

At the times of Algol 60 creation practically all algorithms were for floating point numbers processing and some for signed integer processing. In processing they used arithmetic oerations and comparisons. Bit processing and text string processing were very seldom.

But after 60 years of computer use in algorithm development / implementation it was found that new data types are very important not only for algorithms which processed real (floating) numbers, but also for algorithms which process byte numbers (image and video processing, text processing), short integer (2 byte) numbers (sound processing, text processing), and long integer ( 8 bytes long) ( theory of numbers and cryptography).

What about data structures and pointers? They are so strong addition to language, they change language so hard, that it is not good to add them to Algol. If somebody needs in them, there is C language or Free Pascal language for that.

First step:

Minimum we need in three new data types in addition to existing three. For these new proposed data types can be used such Notation:

Assignment operator make automatical transformation of any integer to any other integer.

For these data types we need Input/Output functions like in the Modified Report. Here they are:

For unsigned integer types of data there are very important bit operations (shifts and logical operations). We can select such set of operations:

In C language vice versa : bit operation uses one symbol, logical uses two symbols.

Add functions for working with binary files:

Second step:

Add operators "while ... do", "break", "continue"

Add new statement "include filename" to include text from filename to any place of Algol program before compilation

Short notation for "comment" keyword - symbol '!'

Short notation for "begin" keyword - symbol '{'

Short notation for "end" keyword - symbol '}'

Support assignment of string constants to one-dimensional array

Make array dynamical allocation by declaration of arrays in any place of program. Add statement "freearray"

Operation %% ( or \ ) - residual of integer division

We also need in some new functions in the standard Algol library

Third step:

In addition it will be useful to have:

Add I/O functions for these data types

It will also be useful to have:

Add functions for open/ close files - open(channel,filename) and close(channel)

Add opportunity to call C-function from standard C runtime libraries by preliminary declaration of them as "external procedure"

Fourth step:

Functions for graphic output to windows:

Programmer can use these functions for graph plotting and image showing.

Firth step:

In development ...

Processing interrupts from timer, keyboard, mouse, USB, ethernet. Introduce procedures GetInterrupt, WaitInterrupt

Add procedures:

For synchronization of access to common resources from different threads use "monolithic" operators. If before operator programmer includes "monolithic" keyword, all other threads of process will wait until this operator will be executed.

For syncronization of different threads activities use triple (event-signal-wait)

Sixth step:

In development ...

Introduce vector and 2-dim matrices operations. Its add a lot of power ( like Matlab power)

Every numeric one dimensional array can be considered as a vector. If vectors have the same dimensions, There are possible operations:

It is also possible consider operations of adding/multiplication vector with number r:

b:=a+r ; and b:= a*r;

Usually one-dimensional array treated as a raw vector, but a' is treated as a column vector. It is a transposition operation. Using it there are possible introduce two additional operations:

Last important operation with vector is subvector selection "::".

example: b[1::4] := a[5::8];

Similar set of operations can be introduced for two-dimensional matrices, follow the linear algebra rules.

In standard extension should be present list of compilation error messages with description of possible situations, when these errors are happen. Any Algol compiler must support this diagnostic.

That is it!

It makes Algol be modern and very poweful language, which is the best for many different tasks.